IJSPR: Volume 11 Number 03
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IJSPR - Volume 11, Number 03

Published On : May 2015
SNo. Paper Title & Authors Page
Abstract: Organic farming evolved since 10,000 years as a sustainable farming technique. In India, the practice of organic farming has been dated since the Ramayana age. In modern era, it was reintroduced by Sir Albert Howard who is also known as father of modern organic agriculture. Now, it is practiced in around 164 countries covering about 37.5 million hectares of land till 2012. There were about 1.9 million organic food producers all around the world in 2012 in which Asia contributed 36% followed by Africa 30% and Europe 17%. India is having most no. of producers (6 lakhs) followed by Uganda (1, 89,610) and Mexico (1, 69,707). In India, Agricultural sector accounted for 13.7% of the total GDP of the country during 2012-13. In Asia, China and India are the leading countries by area with 1.9 million hectares and 0.5 million hectares respectively under organic label. India ranks first in the cultivation of organic cotton in the world which accounts for 50 % of the total world organic cotton production. During 2012-13, Madhya Pradesh bagged the first position in area under organic certification followed by Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. India exported 135 products worldwide which aggregated to total volume of 1, 65,262 MT whose realization was around US $ 374 in 2012-13. To increase production of organic produce for meeting increasing demand, the Government of India initiated a programme named ‘National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP)’ in 10th Five year plan with effect from 1.10.2004. Organic certification is the main initiative under NPOP which is necessary to ensure purity and authenticity of organic food products. There are 24 accredited Certification Bodies registered under NPOP. Within last four decades, global population doubled and now reached above 7 billion and in India, it reached almost 1.2 billion i.e., about 17% of total population of the world. In Future, more work is needed on how to increase productivity of available natural varieties of crops, how to increase affectivity of bio-fertilisers and bio-pesticides and new ways to control pests and weeds. The better future of sustainable environment will require collaborative efforts of Government, policy makers, organisations, institutes, local bodies, consumers and ultimately farmers.
Keywords:Organic farming, Export, NPOP, Certification, Production, Area.
Abstract: This paper deals with the idea of gear designing and development of steel and plastic gear transmission for automobile applications. Basically the driver and driven gear material plays important role for the better wear performance. When metal gears are replaced by plastic gears in automobiles, appliances and machineries due to its advantages of low cost, lightweight, low noise, self-lubrication, less wear, economic considerations, simple design and high production rate in manufacturing. Due to thermal wear nylon 6 and nylon 66 both gears failed, hence to overcome the problem of these gear the PA 46 is better option due to its superior properties and it also meet extreme performance challenges. Beam strength of the gear & static tooth load is calculated with help of Lewis equation & dynamic tooth load & wear tooth load is calculated with help of Buckingham equation.
Keywords:PA 46, Buckingham equation, Lewis equation.
Abstract: Harmonics is generated in power system is due to various sensitive load such as fluorescent lamp, rectifier or inverter operations ,adjustable-speed drive, PWM pulse-width modulation, switch-mode power supply etc. Harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads can interact adversely with the utility supply system. Voltage sags and interruptions are related power quality problems, due to imbalance in voltage and current power factor of the system decrease ,This low power factor reduce power handling capacity of power system. All these problems can be removed by static var compensator (svc). Fixed capacitor thyristor controlled reactor can be used for power factor correction, flicker reduction, and steady-state voltage control, and also have the benefit of being able to filter out harmonics from the system. By changing firing angle of thyristor we can improve voltage profile up to required level.
Keywords:Power Quality, Fuzzy Logic Controller, FC-TCR, Power Factor.
Abstract: The purpose of turbine technology is to extract, maximum quantity of energy from the working fluid to convert it into useful work with maximum efficiency. That means, the Gas Turbine having maximum reliability, minimum cost, minimum supervision and minimum starting time. The gas turbine obtains its power by utilizing the energy of burnt gases and the air. This is at high temperature and pressure by expending through the several rings of fixed and moving blades. A high pressure of order 4 to 10 bar of working fluid which is essential for expansion, a compressor is required. The quantity of working fluid and speed required are more so generally a centrifugal or axial compressor is required. The turbine drives the compressor so it is coupled to the turbine shaft. After compression the working fluid are to be expanded in a turbine.
Keywords:Gas Turbine, Maximum efficiency, combustion chamber, compressor, stating time.
Abstract: This work presents selected results of numerical simulations of processes in utility boiler pulverized coal tangentially fired dry-bottom furnace. The simulations have been performed by specially developed comprehensive mathematical model. The main features of themodel are a tangential fired geometry where four burners are kept at the corner of the burner for generating central vortex in the boiler which provides the flame propagation effectiveness and time to sustain flame for longer time and efficient combustion. The turbulence is captured using k–e gas turbulence model, Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, particles-to-turbulence interaction, diffusion model of particle dispersion is used to understand the particle of pulverized coals on the vortex generation. The parametric study is performed to understand the effect of diameter and velocity on the central vortex for the on and off switching of burners.
Keywords:Tangentially fired furnace; Burner Tripping, Coal-fired Power Plant, Temperature Characteristics.
Abstract: In In this present era the demand of wireless-communication is too high. This paper present the overview of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Also present the problems of OFDM. How can high data rate services bandwidth utilization must be efficient. It should be characterized by significantly enhancing the spectral efficiency in order to increases the speed of operation and network capacity. In conventional FDM, the frequency sub channels are non-overlapping. This leads to inefficient way of utilizing the available bandwidth. In 1960’s an idea of overlap and orthogonal frequency sub channels was proposed, hence the OFDM came into existence. In this paper we also describe the applications of OFDM.
Keywords:Orthogonal-Frequency-Division-Multiplexing OFDM), Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation (3g).
Abstract: Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) include mobile devices. The most plan for that approach wont to support cooperative caching in DTNs, that make the sharing and coordination of cached information among multiple nodes and reduces information access delay. Conjointly produce the designedly cache information in an exceedingly set of network central locations (NCLs), which may be simply access by alternative nodes within the network. Propose AN economical methodology that ensures applicable NCL choice supported a probabilistic choice metric and coordinates multiple caching nodes to optimize the trade-off between information accessibility and caching overhead. The chosen NCLs attain high possibilities for prompt response to user queries with low overhead in network storage and communication. The utility-based cache replacement theme is wont to dynamically modify cache locations supported question history, and this theme achieves smart trade-off between the info accessibility and access delay. To introduce the novel caching protocol adjustive to the difficult for DTNs. To derive AN adjustive caching sure for every mobile node per its specific contact pattern with others, to limit the nice amount of data into its caches. During this manner, each the space for storing and therefore the contact opportunities are higher used. Intensive trace-driven simulations show that our cooperative caching protocol will considerably improve the performance of knowledge access in DTNs.
Keywords:Disruption Tolerant Networks, network central locations, attribute-based encryption, access points, Cipher text-policy attribute-based encryption.
Abstract: Designing a new dual dynamic node hybrid flip-flop (DDFF) and low power 4/5 Counter was based on DDFF. The proposed designs eliminate the large capacitance present in the precharge node by following a split dynamic node structure to separately drive the output pull-up and pull down transistors. The DDFF offers a power reduction of up to 62% and 48% compared to the conventional flip-flops like Power PC 603 flip-flop and semi dynamic flip-flop. The aim of the DDFF-ELM is to reduce pipeline overhead. It presents an area, power, and speed efficient method to incorporate complex logic functions into the flip-flop. The performance comparisons made in a 90 nm UMC process show a power reduction of 48% compared to the Semi dynamic flip-flop, with no degradation in speed performance. The leakage power and delay variations of various designs are compared with the proposed designs. The Footed logic is used to reduce power in the circuits. An efficient power reduction was obtained using footed logic.
Keywords:Low power, Leakage current, Dual Dynamic Flip Flop, high speed, Footed logic.
Abstract: In this paper, Gamma-Gamma Channel model has discussed with the assumption of imperfect CSI. This channel model is used to describe fading in mathematical form. BER performance of this channel model is shown according to turbulence scenario based on BER equation available. Here Gauss-Markov model is used for the case of imperfect CSI.
Keywords:lognormal, Gauss-Markov model, scintillation index, turbulence.
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is a new bridgeless single-phase ac–dcconverter with an automatic power factor correction (PFC) is proposed. The proposed rectifier is based on the single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) topology and it utilizes a bidirectional switch and two fast diodes. The absence of an input diode bridge and the presence of only one diode in the flowing-current path during each switching cycle result in less conduction loss and improved thermal management compared to existing PFC rectifiers. Other advantages include simple control circuitry, reduced switch voltage stress, and low electromagnetic-interference noise. Performance of proposed SEPIC PFC rectifier and its Simulation results are presented.
Keywords:Bridgeless rectifier, discontinuous current mode(DCM), power factor correction (PFC), rectifier, single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC).