IJSPR: Volume 06 Number 01
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IJSPR - Volume 06, Number 01

Published On : December 2014
SNo. Paper Title & Authors Page
Abstract: Reversible logic is optimization of logic design on chip to minimize the delay in calculation and reduce the quantum cost so that the energy consumption of the chip should be minimized. The optimization of the design is the requirement of the VLSI design to increase the response of the signals and operations. To achieve this we are optimizing the use of various reversible gates to calculate various logic operations. In this paper we have designed architecture for 2-bits and compared with the 1-bit architecture and calculated the delay and found the 2-bit architecture having less delay.
Keywords- Reversible Gates, 2-bit architecture, delay and quantum cost.
Abstract: In this review paper we have studied the thermoelectric refrigerator. It was based on the integration of thermoelectric modules, heat pipes and phase change material into one unit. The heat pipes used in this system include thermal diode and "wicked" heat pipe. Unlike thermal diode, the "wicked" heat pipes return the liquid refrigerant to the evaporator via the wick. The thermoelectric systems were developed in the 1950s and use of this technology for air conditioning applications was investigated as early as the 1960s. The continued development of thermoelectric systems was slow owing to technical difficulties and the superior performance of vapour-compression systems in terms of coefficient of performance (COP). Concern over global warming and depletion of the ozone layer has stimulated research to develop cooling methods that do not employ environmentally damaging working fluids such as CFCs and HCFCs. Investigation of novel thermoelectric refrigeration systems from different researchers has been studied in this research.
Keywords - Peltier effect, Thermoelectric module, Figure of merit, Coefficient of Performance, Solar Photo voltaic cells.
Abstract: In this review paper we have investigated and presented the review on various CSMA-CA methodologies also studied the different researcher’s work about CSMA-CA in order to enhance the system performance, the rapid evolution of CSMA brings unprecedented challenges, especially the coexistence of different network architectures and communications devices. In the meantime, many intrinsic limitations of CSMA have been the main obstacle to the performance of its derivatives, such as WiFi System, ZigBee, and mesh networks. Most of these problems are observed to root in the abstract interface of the CSMA MAC and PHY layers The MAC simply abstracts the advancement of PHY technologies as a change of data rate. The throughput modelling and fairness provisioning in CSMA/CA based ad-hoc networks. The fairness issues in CSMA/CA networks are discussed based on the throughput model. The origin of unfairness is studied and the trade-off between throughput and fairness is illustrated. The throughput approximations based on local topology information are proposed and their performances are investigated.
Keywords- sensing, quiet period, CSMA-CA, USRP.
Abstract: This work presents photovoltaic panels generate low DC voltages and these voltages need to be boosted before converted to ac voltage. Therefore, high step-up ratio DC-DC converters are preferred in renewable energy systems. The leakage inductance energy can be efficiently discharged. A new Z-source-source based topology that can boost the input voltage with low duty ratios is proposed in this work. Since the device stresses are low in this topology, low-voltage MOSFETs with small RDS (on) values can be selected to reduce the conduction loss. These features improve the converter efficiency. Finally the prototype converter can be obtained with high efficiency and experimental results are verified by theoretical analysis.
Keywords- Coupled-inductor converters, DC-DC converters, Z-source converters.
Abstract: An image is an artistic work that employs a number of smaller images combined together to form another large image. Each building block of image, that has its own distinctive and meaningful content. Many researchers have made huge efforts in recent years. The study of image retrieval systems, but no competent algorithms are accepted broadly that can extract image features similar to human visions. This is constantly the challenge to all researchers. Compared to the researches various methodologies have been studied for example Content-based Image Retrieval systems, the difference can be analyzed in the recent decade of studies. In this review papers a region-based image retrieval system that uses color and textures visual features to describe the content of an image region has been studied in order to contribute better and efficient image retrieval system. Our contribution is to reach and get better literature review.
Keywords:Image Retrieval, Image Mining, Texture, Shape and Content.
Abstract: Now-a-days various application domains is significantly increasing, the several nodes may attain the scale of hundreds of millions or even more. Shortest distance query is a fundamental operation in huge-scale networks. Several previous methods in the review of literature take a landmark embedding method, which chooses a group of graph nodes as landmarks and computes the shortest distances from each landmark to all nodes as an embedding. To answer a shortest distance query, the pre-computed distance starting from the landmarks to the two query nodes are used to compute an approximate shortest distance based on the triangle inequality. In this paper, we analyze thefactors that affect the accuracy of distance estimation in landmark embedding. In exacting, it found that a internationally selected, query independent landmark set may introduce a large comparative error, particularly for close by query nodes. To deal with this issue, we propose a query-dependent local landmark plan, which identify a local marker near to both query nodes and provides more accurate distance estimation than the traditional global landmark way. This paper proposes proficient local marker indexing and recovery techniques with a scalable sketch-based index structure that not only supports estimation of distances among nodes, excluding computes equivalent shortest paths themselves to achieve low offline indexing complexity and online query complexity.
Keywords:Local landmark, Sketched-based index, Time complexity, Space complexity, Shortest distance query.
Abstract: Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) plays an important role in emergency communications where network can be constructed temporarily and quickly. The nodes move randomly, ZigBee is one of the newest technologies developed by ZigBee Alliance and it enabling Wireless Personal Area works (WPAN). ZigBee tree routing (ZTR) protocol is used in many electronic devices and applications. Parent devices calculate addresses of their child devices by a tree concepts. It does not require any routing table and route discovery overhead to send a packet to the destination. It transmit the packets from source to destination through nodes, if path breaks during the transmission it sends the original data packets to the sender. For that purpose we uses the shortcut tree routing (STR) protocol they calculate remaining hops from an source to the destination. And it occupies large amount of memory for storing the tables for each nodes and time delay occurs due to calculating tables for each path, traffic will remains constant in their paths during the transmission of packets in shortcut tree routing protocol and it changes the path if they have an very high network traffic. Comparing to the zigbee tree routing protocol it overcomes the network density and the network traffic.
Keywords:ZigBee, tree routing, shortcut tree routing, neighbor table, MANET, Wireless Sensor Network.
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has the ability to communicate each other without any fixed network. It has the unpleasant habit to take decisions on its own that is autonomous state. MANET is infrastructure less. An integrated security solution is very much needed for networks to protect both route and data forwarding operations in the network layer. Security is an extremely important requirement in MANET. Without any suitable security in network, then malicious node inside the network will act as a normal node which causes heavy flooding of control packets and this flooding is start to a few number of packets and after some time the massive number of packets are flooded in network i.e. generally known as jamming attack. In this research we will proposed the security scheme against jamming occurred in the in MANET. Jamming attack is one of the attacks in physical layer in terms of signals or bits, MAC layer in terms of channel access, bandwidth allocation and in network layer in terms of heavy control packets. This attack is comes under security acting attacks in MANET.
Keywords:Jamming, Routing, Security, MANET.
Abstract: Maintaining manual driving licence system is very difficult task for the government agencies to monitor as the number of vehicle users are increasing day by day, so for agility plus perfection we need something advance than convetional way of maintenance. In this seminar, we are going to maintain record of driving licence number attached to vehicle with the help of electronics scanning of human body parts(BIOMETRIC). According to ancient Greek scripts BIOMETRIC means study of life. Biometrics studies commonly include fingerprint, face, iris, voice, signature and hand geometry recognition and verification. Among these available biometric features Finger Print suits to be one of the best traits providing good mismatch ratio and also it is reliable. The scanner is interfaced 8051 microcontroller through max232 serial communication. By using this controller we will be controlling the scanning process. After the scanning has been completed the result is stored in the microcontroller. By simply pressing a switch a we can get the details. For this purpose we are combining biological and electronics streams with the help of two different technologies viz. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS and BIOMETRICS.
Keywords:Authentication, Fingerprint, License, Matching, Minutiae, Sensor.
Abstract: The basic function of brake levers is to activate the brake mechanism, which allows people to slow down or stop while they are riding a bike. There are two types of mechanism: mechanic brakes or hydraulic, and both functioning and effectiveness are really different. Also there are differences between all kind of modalities there are in the world of biking, without taking into account if they are hydraulic or mechanic and different kind of materials, depending on the quality of them. The task that brake levers have to carry out makes them to reach some essential properties. So they have not only hardness and stiffness but also lightness and resistance. And this has a simple explanation; these levers have to be able to support an extremely hand-push without breaking or deforming, so they make possible for people to slow down the bike without any danger. Making the brake lever design is an iterative process because we do not know at first how the pressure applied affects it. So we will need to make a simple design and use the ANSYS software for a simulation. With the results we will get we will see the parts of the lever that need to be stronger or that parts that do not support any stress. With this information we will be able to optimize the design and try again the simulation. In this project, the modeling of bike brake lever was done in Catia V5 and simulation had been carried out in Ansys Workbench considering two materials like structural steel and copper alloy under same loading conditions and fine meshing to assess the total deformation. It can be observed from the simulation results that the simple brake lever with thickness of 6mm, structural steel material gives the much lower deformation of about 172m compared to all other cases.
Keywords:Brake lever, Brake mechanism, Deformation.